Digital Culture 2018

Credits: MA level, 10 ECTS

Time: Normally every Thur 0800-1100, 5361 -144 (unless otherwise stated, pls refer to the weekly schedule)

Weekly Schedule | Synopsis | Exam | Grouping | Presentation format


What is Digital Culture? This seems almost too general a question to ask but one that is crucially important when culture has become so thoroughly digitalized that it transforms itself even as we try to define it. How can we begin to analyse these cultural dynamics? The course takes cultural studies, internet studies, software studies and practice-based research perspectives on digital culture, unfolding a range of topics to try to grasp the complexity of our times and exploring how digital technologies profoundly affect our understanding of consumption, production, identity, cultural participation and political agency. Under current conditions, and in the light of digitisation, how can we analyze, consume, design and produce cultural artifacts? We will discuss key texts and look at cultural artifacts, digital art and design examples and explore different design and artistic methods and practices to develop our cultural awareness and critical reflection on digital technologies and platforms. The outcome of the course is to conceptualize, contextualize and sketch a creative work (such as video, documentary, data visualization, software, installation, design prototype, etc), in the form of 5-8 pages synopsis in both written and visual formats, that examines any self-defined digital cultural issues that are related to the themes of the course. This synopsis is to prepare thoughts towards the assessed task in which students are asked to take an oral exam to analyse and reflect upon contemporary digital culture.


  • Lecture and guest lecture participation, including in-class discussion, class presentation and activities
  • Close read the weekly assigned readings
  • Mini assignments
  • Final synopsis, including both the written form and a creative work
  • Oral Exam

Learning Outcomes:

  • Discuss and articulate cultural and theoretical issues related to digital technologies based on the themes of the class.
  • Conceptualize, contextualize and design a creative project regarding any self-defined digital culture issue.
  • Combine practical and theoretical skills by selecting and analysing digital cultural phenomena with a practice based approach and on the basis of theoretical considerations.
  • Develop cultural awareness by critically reflecting on how digital technologies and culture are intertwined.

Weekly Schedule:

class01 | week 36, 6 Sep | Introduction: Selfie Culture – People as Data

[Assigned readings]

[Suggested readings]

[In-class activities]

  • From photomontage to digital montage and selfies (examples: Mother series (1982) by David Hockney and Advertising Positions (2017) by Daniel Howe)
  • Introduction
  • Creative practice & Creating a digital research journal
  • Optional guest lecture, 1415-1700 @ Kunsthal – Come Closer? Aesthetics and ethics of machine intimacy.

class02 | week 37, 13 Sep | Reflecting metaphors: What is the cloud?

[Mini assignment 1 – individual: Keywords | due before class02]

Select at least 3 keywords from the Raymond Williams’ book (1976) and try to relate them to digital technologies and culture through independent research. How would you use the keywords in describing digital culture? What might be the example or experience you could draw upon? Sketch the keywords, relations and ideas through sketch drawings and/or mind mapping. Upload your sketch on your digital research journal. We will discuss your findings in the class. (Don’t see the keywords as definition, but an inquiry into a vocabulary)

[Assigned readings]

  • Raymond Williams, Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society, 1976. (On library shelf) [pls refer to the mini assignment 1 for this reading]
  • Annette Markham, “Metaphors Reflecting and Shaping the Reality of the Internet: Tool, Place, Way of Being,” 2003. (Draft version) [also in blackboard]
  • Wendy Hui Kyong Chun, “Computers that Roar”, in Programmed Visions: Software and Memory, MIT Press, 2013, pp. 55-58. (a short one, in blackboard)
  • [Group 1 presentation] Søren Bro Pold and Christian Ulrik Andersen, “The Cloud Interface: Experiences of a Metainterface World”, In The Metainterface, MIT Press, 2018, pp. 121-155 (in blackboard)

[Suggested reading]

[In-class activities]

  • keywords discussion
  • Discussion of text
  • Group 1 presentation
  • Art practice (via the examples from the Cloud Interface)
  • Next week + mini assignment walk-through (next class on Mon instead)
  • Optional guest lecture 1415-1800: Algorithm – performativity and algorithmic culture @ Kunsthal Aarhus

class03 | week 38, 17 Sep (Mon) @5361-135 | Computerization of everyday life

[Mini assignment 2 – group+individual: Visualizing Timeline | due before class03]

After reading the assigned chapter by Annette Vee, try to digitally design and develop a graphical timeline that charts the milestones in which you think they constitute the computerization of everyday life in a chronological manner. What are the key checkpoints that facilitate computerization? Are there any other items/incidents that you could think of but they are not included in the reading? How would you visualize the timeline, group and interpret the data? (see the second assigned reading on visualization) Document your discussion and questions that have arisen during the thinking and design process. Upload your group graphical timeline and your individual reflection on the digital research journal and if possible, print out a physical copy (per group) and bring to the class.

[Assigned readings]

  • [Group 2 presentation] Annette Vee, “Material Infrastructures of Writing and Programming”, in Coding Literacy, MIT Press, 2017, pp. 139-177 (in blackboard)
  • [Creative practice: visualization] Hinrichs Uta, Forlini Stefania & Moynihan Bridget “In Defense of Sandcastles: Research Thinking through Visualization in DH”, Digital Scholarship of the Humanities. (in Press, you can find in Blackboard but don’t distribute this)

[Suggested readings]

  • Helen, Pritchard, Eric Snodgrass and Magdalena Tyzlik-Carver, “Introduction”, in Executing Practices, Autonomedia, 2017, pp. 9-22. (the pdf of the book is in Blackboard – week06 folder)
  • [Creative practice: information design and data visualization] Joanna Boehert, “Data visualization Does Political Things”, 2016 Design Research Society 50th Anniversary Conference, 2016.
  • [Create practice: information design and data visualization] Giorgia Lupi and Stephanie Posavec, Dear Data, 2016.

[In class activities]

  • Discuss mini assignment 2- timelines
  • Introduce and discuss the artistic and community project: Technopolitics 
  • Co-create a timeline
  • Presentation by Group 2
  • Next week + mini assignment walk-through

class04 | week 39, 27 Sep | Infrastructural and Operative images in Visual Culture

[Assigned readings]

  • Ingrid Hoelzl and Rémi Marie, “The Operative Image (Google Street View: The World as Database)”, in SoftImage, 2015. (in Blackboard)
  • [Group 3 presentation] Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde, and Stina Teilmann. “Thumbnail Images: Uncertainties, Infrastructures and Search Engines.” Digital Creativity 28, no. 4 (October 2, 2017): 279–96.  (via AU online library)
  • [Creative Practice: Documentary storytelling] Sheila Curran Bernard,4 Ways Documentary Filmmaking Can Capture Real-Life Drama“, Writers Store. Web. (This is not related to the above two readings but will be related to in-class activities)

[Suggested readings]

[In class activities]

class05 | week 40, 5 Oct (FRI) 14.00-16.00 @ 5510-103, INCUBA Science Park | Guest lecture by Lia Carreira

[Mini assignment 3 – group: in-class documentary | due before class05]

Design and produce a short documentary story telling video or multimedia work that addresses the phenomena/issues of visual culture in which have been discussed in the assigned readings of class04. Upload the video or link on your digital research journal together with at least 3x work-in-progress sketches/images/screenshots and a statement of your work within 300 words. Individually, write a short reflection about the whole process.

  • No class on 4 Oct
  • Title:
    • Image Politics and Machine Learning: image appropriation and the fragmented body
  • Abstract:
    • The lecture will span across different aspects of contemporary digital culture, addressing key issues in image politics. Specifically, it will draw upon recent debates regarding the appropriation of images using Machine Learning (such as with the current Deepfake phenomena), highlighting their concerns towards privacy, surveillance, control and identity. Through the discussion of those practices, the lecture will address the fragmentation of the body within digital image visualization and analysis, establishing a link to it’s historical backgrounds in modern photography.
  • Bio:
    • Lia Carreira is a media artist and researcher, developing studies in the intersection of Art and Technology, with a focus on online and software-based practices. She has a Master in Media Arts Cultures, from the Danube University Krems, Aalborg University, the University of Łódź and the City University of Hong Kong. She has a first Master in Media Technology and Aesthetics (UFRJ/Brazil), where she developed studies and practices related to image appropriation, image data visualization and analysis, and online culture. Most recently, she worked at the Zentrum für Kunst und Medien (ZKM), researching on the topic of Artificial Intelligence in the arts and on online-based curatorial practices.

class06 | week 41, 11 Oct | Memory and Archives in Datafied Culture

[Mini assignment 4 – individual: Artifact Analysis | due before class06]

1. Select one of the examples in Samson’s article on “Erasure” in Executing Practices, Autonomedia, 2017, pp. 143-153
2. Research the original concept, statement and materials of the artifact
3. Interpret and Explain how the practice of ‘erasure’ has been applied to the chosen artifact. You may need to read the journal articles about the aesthetics of erasure to gain more inspiration.
4. Sketch a new creative project idea that employs the method of erasure in response to datafied culture. (produce at least 3 sketches to explain your creative project idea with words)
5. Upload #3 and #4 to your digital research journal.
6. We will discuss this in the class.

[Assigned readings]

  • About datafication, see Datafied Research- Editorial by Geoff Cox and Christian Ulrik Andersen, 2015. (a short one)
  • [Group 4 presentation] Audrey Samson, “Erasure, an attempt to surpass datafication”, APRJA (4)1, 2015.
  • [Creative Practice: The practice of erasure] Audrey Samson, “Erasure”, in Executing Practices, Autonomedia, 2017, pp. 143-153 (on blackboard)
  • Wolfgang Ernst, “Digital Culture: A Micro-Archival Present”, in The Delayed Present: Media-Induced Tempor(e)alities & Techno-traumatic Irritations of “the Contemporary”,  Sternberg Press, 2017, pp. 25-40 (on blackboard – **it’s a proof and not for distribution**)

[Suggested reading]

  • The editorial statement of the Journal issue about The aesthetics of Erasure
  • The journal issue about The aesthetics of Erasure
  • Wendy Hui Kyong Chun, “Always Already There, or Software as Memory”, in Programmed Visions, MIT Press, 2013, pp. 137-173.

[In class activities]

  • Examples:
  • Discussion of mini assignment 3 and 4
  • Mid way evaluation
  • Next class + mini assignment walk-through
  • Optional guest lecture by John Cayley, 1415-1600 @ Karsernen (Building 1584, Room 124) – Reading with Aesthetics: before and after transactive synthetic langauge

No class on week 42 but pls read through the final synopsis brief and think about it. Prepare any questions regarding the synopsis.

class07 | week 43, 25 Oct | Search Culture and its politics

[Mini assignment 5 – individual: Preparing for the opened fishbowl game |  due before class07]

This week requires a bit time to do the close reading as the three readings introduce how a Search Engine works in different ways and the authors try to address the matter of search. Keep this core question in mind: How could we discuss technology and values together through the example of search engines?

Besides, you really need to jot notes of what you have read and reflect on the text (I will suggest you put the notes, questions and reflection on the digital research journal). You will use the materials to participate the in-class fishbowl activity, where each of you need to participate and join the discussion intensively. You are required to read closely the assigned readings.

[Assigned readings]

* Group 5, 6 and 7 >> I suggest you read super closely with the selected article and then discuss within the group about the text because you will be taken part in leading and moderating the fishbowl discussion that involve the whole class. Based on your responsible text, you are required to prepare two questions for the coming fishbowl activity, while one should be more based on the text closely and the other one could be more open-ended. Please write your questions here. Additionally, during the in-class fishbowl game, you group is required to summarize the discussion that is related to your listed question.

The objectives of this activity are:

  1. to facilitate full class participation by engaging with your questions
  2. to understand and discuss the text
  3. to bring the conversations into a higher level of discussion e.g apply with examples and facilitate further discussion regarding the concepts in the text.
  4. Preparation for the oral exam with questions and discussions

[Suggested readings]

[In class activities]

class08 | week 44, 1 Nov | Workshop by Shelly Knotts

  • Title: Live Coding Fieldnotes
  • Description:

For the last six years I have been exploring the potential of live coding as an improvisational performance practice across contexts and genres. I’ve performed in the free improv, DIY and noise scenes, academic electronic music contexts and at Algoraves, collaborating with other live coders, acoustic musicians, visualists, authors, and algorithmic beings. Through the trial-and- (often fortuitous)error process of live algorithmic design I’ve expanded my own musical limits, learnt more about SuperCollider than I did in seven years in the studio and came to see live coding as more than just a tool for flexible improvisation.
Through embracing live coding I came to perform technicality, becoming a visible example of a ‘woman who codes’. I became acutely aware of the narratives of live coding and the politics of embodying this position. I perceived the critique of feminine technicality that exists in music tech and computer science fields as amplified by the act of publicly ‘doing technical things’. Feminism as a performative practice became central to my work and resulted in projects such as ALGOBABEZ and OFFAL (Orchestra For Females And Laptops).
In this workshop I’ll recount experiences from the wild of performing with and through algorithms, and expanding my own musical horizons through explorative coding. I’ll discuss embracing error and failure as part of the practice, using narratives around this to help diversify the live coding community, and the contribution of female live coders to reinserting women into the narratives of computing.
After an introductory talk we will explore some live coding tools, techniques and practices and engage in critical discussion on performing with and through algorithms.

  • Bio:

Shelly Knotts produces live-coded and network music performances and projects which explore aspects of code, data and collaboration in improvisation. She performs and presents her work internationally at festivals and conference, and collaborates prolifically with computers and other humans. She studied for a PhD in Live Computer Music at Durham University with a focus on the social dynamics of collaboration in Network Music. In 2017 she was Leverhulme Artist-in- Residence at School of Chemistry, Newcastle University, working on Molecular Soundscapes which included Chemical Algorave exploring live coded data sonification. She is currently a Research Fellow at SensiLab, Monash University working on ARC funded project Improvisational Interfaces.
As well as performing at numerous Algoraves and Live Coding events, she collaborates with improvisers across a spectrum of styles and practices. Current projects include algo-pop duo ALGOBABEZ (with Joanne Armitage), international telematic laptop ensemble OFFAL (Orchestra For Females And Laptops), and audio-visual, generative live coding performance [Sisesta Pealkiri] with Alo Allik.She has received commissions and residencies from national funders in the UK. Her music has been released on Fractal Meat and Chordpunch record labels and in 2017 she was a winner of the inaugural The Oram Awards for innovation in sound and | @shelly_knotts | @algobbz

  • Next week + mini assignment walk-through
  • Optional guest lecture by Kristin Veel 1415-1600 @ Karsernen (Building 1584, Room 124) – Social Media Small Forms

class09 | week 44, 2 Nov (FRI) 15.00-17.00 @Kunsthal Aarhus | Performative-lecture by Shelly Knotts

  • Title: Annoying Algorithms: or Critical Approaches to Performing with and through Algorithms.
  • Abstract:In this talk Shelly will share observations from the wild of improvising with and through algorithms. She describes a number of performance systems which explore possible synergies between the dynamics of improvisation in music ensembles which use network technology to exchange musical and social data, and the dynamics of online social networking which is fundamentally mediated by algorithms and interface design. The pieces discuss and explore the dynamics of human interaction when data collection and algorithms are used to modify or moderate this interaction, and algorithms subvert or enable particular power-dynamics. This critical approach to algorithmically mediating improvised performance feeds into a live coding performance practice which acknowledges and highlights human error and failure. The talk will be followed by a performance of her work Flow (2015-16) which uses live EEG data to disrupt her live coding performance.

class10 | week 45, 8 Nov | Algorithmic Culture and Machine Learning

[Mini assignment 6 – group: Machine Learning | due before class10]

This assignment is helping you to understanding what’s machine learning (or the cultural implications of machine learning). Based on the 3 assigned readings, present the topic ‘what is machine learning from a technical and cultural perspectives’ in a digital graphic poster format. The poster should include the concepts from the text and your association (You may also take a look at the poster design from Anatomy of an AI System for inspiration). Write a short individual reflection about the sense making process. Upload the digital poster + your reflection on your research journal before class. Print out the poster for class sharing.

[Assigned readings]

  • Alan F. Blackwell, “Artificial Intelligence and the Abstraction of Cognitive Labour” (draft), 2018. (on blackboard)
  • [Group 8 presentation] Kate Crawford and Vladan Joler, “Anatomy of an AI System: The Amazon Echo As An Anatomical Map of Human Labor, Data and Planetary Resources,” AI Now Institute and Share Lab, (September 7, 2018)
  • [Group 9 presentation] Adrian Mackenzie, “The production of prediction: What does machine learning want?”, European Journal of Cultural Studies2015, Vol.18(4-5) 429–445.

[Suggested readings]

[In class activities]

class11 | week 46, 15 Nov | “staying with the trouble” of future technologies

[Mini assignment 7 – individual: Preparing for your draft synopsis | due 13 Nov]

Come up with a draft idea for your final synopsis and upload to your digital research journal

  1. 2x sketches/screenshots of your creative project
  2. a short description of your creative practice within 300 words
  3. A provisional title of your synopsis
  4. Summarize the theme that you want to explore, your research question, the context, and the relation with the creative project within 600 words.
  5. Reference list
  6. Upload the draft to your digital research journal on 13 Nov
  7. Take a look at other draft synopsis (see the bottom part of the grouping page, and prepare a 3 mins feedback for each person within the new group before the class).
  8. The materials that you have prepared will be used for the in-class activity on peer feedback.

[Feedback guidelines:]

  • Do you understand what is the precise cultural issue/phenomena here? What is the research question and contextualization? Is it doable to address the question within 8 pages with a creative project?
  • What theoretical/conceptual considerations that the draft is based upon? Does it make sense to you? Any suggestion on how to use/expand the concepts?
  • How’s the creative practice being used in the synopsis? What’s the role of practice here? (as an illustration of some theoretical concerns? inquire for something? suggest for alternative? or others?)
  • How do you see or imagine the connection between practical work and theoretical/conceptual considerations? Does the project come with a solid ground?
  • What do you learn from their project?
  • Do you have any questions/suggestion regarding the synopsis?

[Assigned readings]

  • [Creative Practice: Design fiction] Søndergaard, Marie Louise Juul, and Lone Koefoed Hansen. “Intimate Futures: Staying with the Trouble of Digital Personal Assistants through Design Fiction,” 869–80. ACM Press, 2018. [Prepare 3 concepts from the article that you find interesting/difficult, trying to understand what the authors mean. We will discuss in the class]

[Suggested readings]

[in class activities]

  • AYA by Marie Louise Juul Søndergaard, see video here
  • Discussion on creative practice: speculative design and design fiction
  • Peer-review of the draft synopsis
  • next mini assignment 8 walk-through [Revising your final synopsis]
    • Upload your revised draft on Blackboard/Mini Assignment with 1 pdf by Tue 27-Nov 10.00 (max 4 pages)
  • Optional guest lecture by Rasmus Fleischer 15 Nov, 1415-1600 @ Karsernen (Building 1584, Room 124) – Spotify and the management of abundance
  • Optional guest lecture/PhD defense by Marie Louise Juul Søndergaard on 19/11 – 1400-1700 (if you have limited time, just go for the first hour): Staying with the Trouble through Design: Critical-feminist Design of Intimate Technologies
  • Option guest lecture by Daniela Rosner on 20 Nov 10.15-1200: Critical Fabulations

22 Nov (Thur) – Optional guest lecture by Søren Pold og Christian Ulrik Andersen, 1415-1600 @ Karsernen (Building 1584, Room 124) – The Metainterface – Critical Realism and Design

class12 | week 47, 23 Nov (FRI) 14.00-16.00 @ the big Auditorium, Building 5510-103, INCUBA Science ParkGuest lecture by Allision Parrish

  • Title: Computational Models of the Poetic Avant-Garde
  • Abstract: A great deal of current research on the “problem” of modeling poetry computationally focuses purely on imitation: how to make a computer program that writes poems that resemble those of existing poets or well-known styles and forms. Drawing on her own research and practice, Allison Parrish will present an alternative view: that computational models have the potential not only to facilitate understanding of historical avant-garde poetic practices, but to enable new experimental approaches to poetic composition that move beyond mere verisimilitude. The lecture will address the broader question of the link between computational techniques and creativity both historically and in a contemporary context.
  • Bio: Allison is a computer programmer, poet, educator and game designer whose teaching and practice address the unusual phenomena that blossom when language and computers meet, with a focus on artificial intelligence and computational creativity. She is a Teacher at NYU’s Interactive Telecommunications Program, where she earned her master’s degree in 2008.Named “Best Maker of Poetry Bots” by the Village Voice in 2016, Allison’s computer-generated poetry has recently been published in Ninth Letter and Vetch. She is the author of “@Everyword: The Book” (Instar, 2015), which collects the output of her popular long-term automated writing project that tweeted every word in the English language. The word game “Rewordable,” designed by Allison in collaboration with Adam Simon and Tim Szetela, was published by Penguin Random House in August 2017 after a successful round of Kickstarter funding. Her first full-length book of computer-generated poetry, “Articulations,” was published by Counterpath in 2018.
    More info:

**optional drop-in supervision in the morning at 0900-10.30 at building 5347 room 230 (please come with specific questions + sign up is required)**

* Optional workshop on 24 Nov (Sat) 1200-1700: Computers won’t change the world, women will | Introduction to feminist coding practices with p5.js by Melissa Palermo (sign up is required)

class 13 | week 48, 30 Nov (FRI) | Final

Mini assignment 8 [Revising your final synopsis]

  • Upload your revised draft on Blackboard/Mini Assignment with 1 file in the format of doc/odt by Tue 27-Nov 10.00 (max 4 pages)

[In class activities]

  • Discussion/supervision of synopsis
  • Continue to work on your revised synopsis
  • Final evaluation of the course
  • Final remarks on the oral exam

No class on 6 Dec week 49

Synopsis due (10-Dec-2018) :

With the weekly themes of the course that touch on a variety of cultural issues, techno-politics and digital phenomena, the final synopsis requires students to identify a research question that somehow addresses or responds to digital culture. It consists of two parts, a creative work and its contextualization. You are encouraged to team up with others (max 4) and work on a practical creative work that helps you to explore or express your central concern (such as video, documentary, data visualization, software, installation, design prototype, etc). Additionally, It is required to conceptualize and contextualize your creative work individually through written format. This synopsis is to prepare thoughts towards the assessed task in which students are asked to take an oral exam to analyse and reflect upon contemporary digital culture. See below for the detailed format and requirement for the submission:


  • Length of synopsis: 5-8 pages (exclude references)
  • A title of your overall submission
  • Submit to Digital Exam in the form of one single pdf file

1/  Creative work (can be a group work):

  • A video link: Upload a 1-2 mins video documentation of your creative work (such as what is it, how does it work?) on any web platform.
  • An image of your creative work
  • A title of your creative work
  • At least 2 work-in-progress images/sketches
  • Reference projects (if any)

2/ Contextualization (Individual)

The synopsis should at least cover the following:

  • A description of the central topic and how it relates to one of the themes
  • Your research question?
  • What is your creative work about (may be a short description within 200 words would help) and what do you want to explore with it and why this is a good medium to respond to the topic?
  • How the chosen theories can be applied/expanded (you can also explore and include other academic texts, which is out of the course syllabus – pls check with me, but it is essential to incorporate references from this course)
  • Main points of your discussion or analysis
  • Reflection on how the work, the practice element, helps you to explore your self-defined research topic
  • Bibliography


  • Consider the balance of the contextualization/research problems, creative work, theories, and reflection.
  • Think about the structure and organize your thoughts clearly
  • This synopsis is considered as an academic short essay, proper citation and references are required.

Food for thoughts:

Dec 2018 – Oral exam (17-19 Dec 2018, Precise time later) :


  • Subject to active, regular and satisfactory class participation
  • Complete all the mini assignments
  • Synopsis submission


  1. 6 mins presentation about your project (including the creative work)
  2. 14 mins discussion in relation to your project and written synopsis
  3. 5 mins discussion by examiners only (students will wait outside the exam room)
  4. 5 mins discussion/feedback in relation to your grade

Presentation format 01:

  • Within 20 mins presentation and 10 mins Q and A
  • Read and engage the text closely
  • Background: What’s the text about and its context? What’s the specific digital cultural issue in the text? What are the key arguments and concepts have been introduced? (Discuss and articulate cultural and theoretical issues related to digital technologies based on the themes of the class)
  • Your disagreement/agreement to the supporting points (why) or how the text inform your understanding of any specific contemporary digital cultural phenomena, and how would you reflect on this? (Develop cultural awareness by critically reflecting on how digital technologies and culture are intertwined)
  • Present a creative project either by looking for an existing example or drafting your own that relates to the topic
  • Raise at least one open question for in-class discussion

Presentation format 02:

  • Preparation: Read, engage and discuss the text closely before the class
  • A 5 min brief introduction about the text (assuming everyone has read it)
  • Present a creative project either by looking for an existing example or drafting your own that relates to the topic
  • Come up with 3 concepts from the text that you found difficult to understand, and try to present those concepts from your group perspective. Then try to open up the floor for discussion. (This may be useful for small group discussion)
  • If you have to work with machine learning as a theme, what would be your research question that you want to raise? Share with the class and discuss it together.